Recall “The Big Picture,” the four-step process that encompasses statistics: data production, exploratory data analysis, probability, and inference. In the previous posts, we considered exploratory data analysis—the discovery of patterns in the raw data. First we need to choose the individuals from the population that will be included in the sample. Then, once we have…

# Tag: r

## Causation and Lurking Variables With simpson’s paradox

The one and only principle rule in statistics is Principle:Association does not imply causation! The scatterplot below illustrates how the number of firefighters sent to fires (X) is related to the amount of damage caused by fires (Y) in a certain city. The scatterplot clearly displays a fairly strong (slightly curved) positive relationship between the two variables. Would it,…

## Relations A statistical Approach

In most studies involving two variables, each of the variables has a role. We distinguish between: the explanatory variable (also commonly referred to as the independent variable)-—the variable that claims to explain, predict or affect the response; and the response variable (also commonly referred to as the dependent variable)-—the outcome of the study. Typically the explanatory (or independent) variable is denoted by X, while the response (or…

## Statistical Measures: An Introduction

Boxplot: The Five Number Summary Introduction Before we move on to the third measure of spread (standard deviation), we’ll summarize what we’ve learned so far about measuring spread and use it to introduce another graphical display of the distribution of a quantitative variable, the boxplot. didn’t follow me before no problem in tag cloud click statistics…

## Analysis Of Public health data with R with Logistic Regression

As we are talking about logistic regression to be used in place of linear regression some points needs to keep in mind while we are using it. Why does linear regression not work with binary outcomes? Binary outcomes only have two values. The example we are using throughout this course is diabetes, where individuals either have…

## The Big Picture of Statistics

this post is inspired by stanford.edu The process of statistics starts when we identify what group we want to study or learn something about. We call this group the population. Note that the word populationhere (and in the entire course) does not refer only to people; it is used in the broader statistical sense to refer not…

## Data Visualization With ggplot2 :Understanding the grammar and practical approach

Data visualization is far most important thing in your data science or data analytics journey. It is the visualization that attract the viewers to see your work that impress the shareholder to invest and the authority to give a positive review towards your work but correct representation of data is not that simple not only…

## Understand Basic to Advance Data Structure Used in R to use it Efficiently

Understand Basic to Advance Data Structure Used in R to use Efficiently Data structures You’ve probably used many (if not all) of them before, but you may not have thought deeply about how they are interrelated. In this brief overview, I’ll show you how they fit together as a whole. If you need more details,…